Level 1 Charging of EV Batteries
The most efficient and lowest cost EV Charging Infrastructure would use the greatest numbers of Level 1 chargers at widespread locations with fewer Level 2 and DC Fast chargers strategically positioned in high traffic corridors.
1. Level 1 charging stations cost much less than Level 2 or DC Fast Charging stations, so many more EV charging stations can be available sooner in more places if limited funds are spent primarily on installation of many Level 1 EV charging stations with just a few of the faster chargers.
2. Most vehicles drive 50 or fewer miles per day and spend most of their time parked. Slow Level 1 charging would be sufficient for most electric vehicles on most days if Level 1 EV charging was readily available at all places where EVs are parked for any substantial amount of time (e.g. home, [EV_Charging_at_the_Workplace workplace], & public parking). Much smaller numbers of Level 2 & DC Fast Charging stations should also be available for those few EV drivers who need to drive greater distances.
3. Slow Level 1 charging is the most economical way to charge the EV battery. Faster EV charging options provide more charging speed when needed, but at a greater cost. EV drivers and electric utilities should both encourage the greatest possible use of Level 1 charging. Why? As the numbers of electric vehicles in society increases the electric utilities will be able to serve more EV drivers with fewer expensive increases in electric grid capacity if the EV charging infrastructure is designed to enable and encourage EV drivers to use Level 1 charging as much as possible.
4. EV batteries may last longer if they are charged primarily using Level 1 chargers rather than fast chargers. EV car owners have a strong incentive to extend the life of their expensive EV batteries by use of Level 1 chargers whenever possible. Expensive EV battery replacements will be needed prematurely for drivers who make more frequent use of fast battery charging.
5. If EVs are almost always plugged into Level 1 charging stations wherever they are parked, then this will maximize the opportunities for electric utilities to help stabilize the electric grid with "smart EV charging" or "vehicle-to-grid" strategies. These techniques can help reduce blackouts and brownouts in the electric grid. This could enable the electric utilities to share some of that value by reducing or eliminating the electricity costs for EV Level 1 charging.